Evaluation of Resident Clinical Pharmacists’ Interventions and Recommendations in an Ophthalmic Ward of a Teaching Hospital in Ghana

The traditional role of a pharmacist predominantly involved the dispensing of medicationsin both hospital and community settings. Consequently, the pharmacist was quite detached from other healthcare professionals with respect to patient care. The profession hassince evolved to become recognized as an essential part of the clinical team. Pharmacist interventions, therefore, are pivotal in clinical pharmacy services within a hospital. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the number of medicine-related interventions and recommendations atthe LionsInternational EyeCenter(LIEC)oftheKorle Bu TeachingHospital. The currentstudy, which is a prospective,single-centre, patient chartreview, was carried out using clinical pharmacy residents from the Ghana College of Pharmacists and covers the period 5/12/2018 to 15/04/19. Each type of recommendation documented was categorized and analysed for acceptance or non-acceptance by physician ophthalmologists, whilst each intervention was classified and quantified according to the type ofmedication errors(ME)identified. During the 4-month study period, the clinical pharmacy residents recommended 19 drug therapy changes and identified 70 interventions of medication errorsfor 13 patientstaking a total of 95 drugs at the centre. Recorded acceptance rate of interventions by ophthalmologists was 7% (5/70), rejection rate was 3% (2/70) whilst the rate of interventions with an unknown acceptance/non acceptance outcome was 90% (63/70). The most prevalent type of medication errors wasthe identification of omissions of patient’s drug frequency (20.6%),followed by drugmonitoring (17.1%). Clinical interventions made were moderately significant and primarily related to medications used in the ophthalmic specialty setting. Furtherstudies are needed to strengthen such outcomes and improve acceptance forthe benefit of patientsseeking eye care attheCentre.

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